Canada Recognizes Need For An International Space Treaty

June 01, 2003


"A senior Canadian official, travelling with the Prime Minister on an 11-day European trip, said yesterday Canadian firms stand to benefit from contracts to build the missile shield.

The official said he expects Cabinet will make a decision on whether to join missile defence by the end of the summer.

The official said Canada 's participation hinged on whether Norad is in charge of the new system. Canada would also back out if the U.S. decided to use it as the first step toward the weaponization of space, he said.

The Americans have assured the government that for the time being the missile defence program will not be used to weaponize space, and the official said Canada will push hard for an international treaty to outlaw such a move."

National Post May 30 2003 p5


On February 17 2003 Svend Robinson introduced a petition in the House of Commons, on behalf of petitioners from the lower mainland of BC for Canada to host a conference for a "Space Preservation Treaty".

The Institute for Co-operation In Space (ICIS)(Canada) has been working towards this end since it became obvious that a treaty needs to be in place to prevent the weaponization of space, the attempt by the US to dominate space for its unilateral military and commercial purposes, the probability of an ensuing arms race in space, AND to promote the peaceful uses of space. More information at: http://www.peaceinspace.com/ed_intconf.shtml

The Treaty is companion to the "Space Preservation Act of 2002" introduced in the US by Democratic Presidential Candidate Congressman Dennis Kucinich on January 23 2002, 2nd SESSION 107th CONGRESS H.R. 3616, and which will be re-introduced by Congressman Dennis Kucinich into the 108th U.S. Congress.


http://www.parl.gc.ca/37/2/parlbus/chambus/house/debates/061_2003-02-17/han0 61_1520-E.htm

February 17 2003

Space Preservation Treaty

Mr. Svend Robinson (BurnabyDouglas, NDP): Mr. Speaker, I have the honour of presenting three petitions today.

The first petition is on the subject of the weaponization of outer space.

It is signed by over 1,200 petitioners from the lower mainland of British Columbia , including Bea Bernhausen of Vancouver , Alfred Webre of the Institute for Cooperation in Space Canada and many of my own constituents of Burnaby Douglas. The petitioners raise serious concerns about the possibility of an arms race in space, particularly as a result of the American termination of the ABM treaty.

They therefore urge the House of Commons to call upon the government to immediately approve, sign and ratify the space preservation treaty and deposit the treaty with the secretary general of the United Nations, as well as to convene a treaty signing conference for the space preservation treaty as Canada has done on other occasions, for example, with the land mines treaty.




USIS, United Societies in Space Article: Transform the War Economy into a Sustainable, Space Age, World Cooperative Economy , January, 2003

"We're asking our countries leaders to recognize the commonality of all people.

We're asking our countries leaders to understand that the world is undivided.

We're asking our countries leaders to see the world as an interconnected whole.

We're asking our countries leaders to take a holistic view of the world and to allow the globe, the sphere of the Earth herself, to exist free from an assault from space. We have an opportunity to recreate the spirit of our times. I can feel it. We can take this technology for destruction, for war, and, through this proposal, create a technology for peace. We can create a world where war

no longer becomes inevitable. We first have to look to a practical measure, such a measure to stop the weaponization of space. This Space Preservation Treaty, the ban of all weapons from space, will impact every issue. All the universe should understand that we truly come in peace because we exist in peace. Now, occasionally in life, we get the opportunity to stand at the epicenter of an event. Many of us have had that opportunity. Today, we have such an opportunity again. It is through peaceful cooperation that we will ensure that space will always be free from weapons. We have the chance today, launching this effort for peace, through saying, There shall be no weapons in space.' I support an international Treaty-signing Conference. And I ask leaders

from all over the world to sign the Space Preservation Treaty, send it to the U.N. Secretary General as Treaty Depositary, and to ratify it, now."

- U.S. Congressman Dennis Kucinich


2003 is going to be the most exciting ever for space enthusiasts, and for people who want the R&D of safe and clean technology, products and services to be applied directly to solving urgent problems of humanity and our environment.

Because 2003 is when the human species will experience a collective consciousness awakening and shift, as they see the arms race end before it escalates into space, and when the truth begins to be revealed about who we are in these bodies, on this planet, and in the universe. What makes 2003, so special? The choice will be made&weaponize space to "control and dominate" space (and he who controls space controls earth), or choose freedom, security, a stimulated economy, health and education for all. How will consciousness shift? When the reality becomes apparent that ALL space-based weapons have been banned, for all time.

Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-OH) will re-introduce the Space Preservation Act in 2003, there will be a world Treaty-signing Conference, and cities across the US and the world are now declaring the space above the heads of their citizens to be a space-based weapons-free zone. The only way the space program can expand is to continue space R&D, testing, manufacturing,

production and deployment of civil, commercial and military space endeavors that are not related to limiting, dangerous, too costly, destabilizing space-based weapons that won't protect anyone or anything.

Achieving an enforceable, permanent ban on ALL space-based weapons is of immediate importance at this moment in history while it is within our practical reach to expand space ventures that can benefit all on earth, including adversaries. This ban can only be achieved before weapons are deployed into space, which would be done under the guise of calling them "tests," and/or before a momentum of funding and vested interests gets put into place that would make that unnecessary phase of weaponry unstoppable.

On June 13, 2002, the Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) Treaty expired following President Bush's notice of abrogation on December 13, 2001. This action will permit research, development, testing, manufacturing, production and deployment of space-based weapons, and components of the U.S. Missile Defense System, to go forward. In the old paradigm, missile defense with space-based weapons makes sense. But we all know that we are in grave danger if we place weapons

above everyone's heads pointed down everyone's throats. And the people of the US are emerging in support of Congressman Kucinich by the tens of thousands, more thousands every month send him emails of support as he calls not just for a new approach on earth to solving problems of security and economics, and for all progressive issues vital to our survival, but for peace in space to continue.

Kucinich is Co-Chair of the Aviation and Space Caucus. Getting $100 million put into a recent NASA budget, he is a knowledgeable friend of space. He doesn't call for shutting down the space industry, or the space military program - just the opposite. He knows that space is already militarized. He is opposed to the weaponization of space as are most of us who care about our expensive and sensitive space assets.

He understands that contracts will continue without the mandate to weaponize space. And that more jobs and training programs will be created as the space program expands, which it will, once the limited space-based weapons program is omitted.

Most leaders of the world are on record wanting to ban space-based weapons, and they want space to be dedicated to providing benefits for all humankind.

On April 12, 2001, U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan announced his support of this ban. Secretary General Annan stated that the international community recognized early on that a legal regime for outer space was needed to prevent space from becoming another arena of military confrontation. November 29, 2001, the U.N. General Assembly approved by a 156-0 vote the basis for a treaty establishing a permanent ban on space-based weapons (Resolution 56/535).

The Resolution stated Member Nations were "convinced that further measures should be examined in the search for effective and verifiable, bilateral and multilateral agreements in order to prevent an arms race in outer space, including the weaponization of outer space." November 20, 2000, a similar U.N. General Assembly resolution to prevent an arms race in space (Resolution 55/32) was adopted with a163-0 vote.

Space-faring nation leaders have publicly stated they favor banning space-based weapons. July 26, 2001, Canada 's Deputy Prime Minister John Manley stated, " Canada would be very happy to launch an initiative to see an international convention preventing the weaponization of space."

Canada first called for a ban of space-based weapons in1982, again in 1998 and 1999.

The Space Preservation Treaty, companion to a U.S. bill, H.R. 3616, the Space Preservation Act introduced by U.S. Congressman Dennis Kucinich (D-OH), is the effective and verifiable, enforceable multilateral agreement that will prevent the weaponization of outer space and provide a win-win for the world. It will be reintroduced in February, 2003.

Under the terms of the Space Preservation Treaty, each State Party having signed the Treaty shall immediately work toward supporting other non-signatory State Parties in signing, ratifying and implementing the Treaty. Once three nations sign it and deposit it at the United Nations depositary, the U.N. Secretary General is required to report publicly to the U.N. General

Assembly every 90 days on the progress of implementing a permanent ban on space-based weapons and on the progress of signing and ratifying of the Treaty by State Parties. Once 20 nations have signed and ratified the Space Preservation Treaty, it will go into force, and Article IV provides that "Each State party to this Treaty agrees to the establishment, funding, equipping and

deployment of an outer space peacekeeping agency, whose mission is to monitor outer space and enforce the permanent ban of space-based weapons under this Treaty."

This Agency will also make it possible to verify arms agreements including the reduction and eventual elimination of nuclear weapons and other dangerous technologies on earth.

Article VII of the Space Preservation Treaty provides that "The provisions of Articles 1 and II of this Treaty shall apply to all States, regardless of whether such States are signatures to this treaty." Enforcement will take place in the context of a new space paradigm, a whole new way of thinking in terms of conflict resolution: enhanced communication and information sharing, and

on applications of clean and safe technology, products and services that will now be applied directly to solve urgent human (health, education, poverty, etc.) and environmental (climate, energy, pollution, etc.) problems worldwide.

Adversaries will come together to reap the benefits. This will lead to peace on earth and will preserve peace in space.

For the first time in history we have a space champion on the Hill who has produced a simple, feasible Space Preservation Act, which is completely compatible with and companion to the Space Preservation Treaty. The Space Preservation Act requires the U.S. President to work toward "negotiating, adopting and implementing an international treaty banning space-based

weapons and the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit."

The Space Preservation Treaty is ready to be signed by all nation-state leaders, NOW. It is the most up-to-date, appropriate world treaty of our time as it will positively impact all we do in space and on earth as it brings us into the new space paradigm. And it is easily translated, as it in the

language of the Space Preservation Act, the 1967 Outer Space Treaty, and the best of international proposals. Both the Space Preservation Act and the Space Preservation Treaty provides that "Each State Party to this Treaty shall:

(1) implement a ban on space-based weapons;

(2) implement a ban on the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit; and

(3) immediately order the permanent termination of research and development, testing, manufacturing, production and deployment of all space-based weapons of such State Party."

Because deployment of space-based weapons would take place under the guise of calling it "merely research" or "tests," and we are close to that happening in spite of rumors to the contrary, because the momentum of funding and vested interests put into place would make it impossible to stop the weaponization of space ever - (and that momentum building process is accelerating rapidly in the spin of "terrorism," which space-based weapons won't stop), the language and intention of this Space Preservation Treaty will halt ALL research, development, testing, manufacturing and production (key wording) as well as deployment.

And, the establishment of a new entity, an Outer Space Peacekeeping Agency that will be formed to monitor outer space and to enforce the ban is vitally important to this process of allowing us to expand with the greatest of opportunities of all time into space.

Sign the Space Preservation Treaty for a World Cooperative Space-Age Economy

The signing and ratifying of the Space Preservation Treaty is the step that will facilitate future public and private investment in sustainable, non-weapons, expanded civil, commercial and military, world cooperative space ventures, and the consequent stimulation of the national and world economy and a security system stronger than ever that is based on enhanced communication, information sharing, and on the applications of our space age technology,

including that based in space, to solving urgent problems on earth while providing a beneficial and exciting future in our sacred space.

Article I, Section 4 of the Space Preservation Treaty (and this is in the Act, as well) provides that: "Nothing in this Treaty shall be construed to prohibit the following activities, provided that such activities are not related to space-based weapons:

Space exploration;

Space research and development; Testing, manufacturing or deployment that is not related to space-based weapons or systems; or Civil, commercial, or defense activities (including communications, navigation, surveillance, reconnaissance, early warning, or remote sensing) that are not related to space-based weapons or systems."

Public and private investment in sustainable, non-weapons related space activities will open the way to significant positive impacts on all issues including on national and world economies - also including on space business and entrepreneurs.

When the ban on space-based weapons is signed into law, more technology will be researched and developed to meet the world's quantitative and qualitative demand. Investment in non-weapons space-related capital goods and services that come from sustainable space-based industries, businesses, labs, factories, space hospitals, habitats, hotels and resorts, schools and universities, elevators, and farms will contribute to the creation of economic multiplier effects which in turn will have positive impacts on terrestrial and space jobs and training programs, as an expanding consumer and producer economy grows on earth in this new, space age paradigm context where there will be no space-based weapons in our space frontier.

A space-based weapon is a capital good that would not itself produce jobs, goods and services. Whereas a sustainable space factory, hotel, or hospital, etc., for example, is a capital good that in turn multiplies the investment put into it by producing new jobs and training programs, new goods and services, new clean and safe technology, for the growing and stimulated space and terrestrial economy and marketplace.

Banning space-based weapons will create a new era of world cooperation and expansion into space in the context of a new space age paradigm wanted and needed by humankind as we evolve into the Universe, with unprecedented benefits, opportunities and prosperity.

By simply governing space in such a way that we cap the arms race before it escalates into space, at the only time in history when we can cap it, we can, Aikido style, transform the war industry into a sustainable, cooperative world space industry in order to get to peace and prosperity.

By just calling for peace and sustainable development, or even by protesting with facts when we want a change, we have seen the results: more war. The more one focuses on weapons and other dangerous technologies, the more one gets more weapons and other dangerous technologies. A new space vision is what we need to focus on and educate about. Because otherwise the old paradigm war gaming will move right into that place above all our heads. As the intention was always to "seize the high ground" to use that technology as force multipliers in war gaming.

Of course, space exploration cannot and should not be stopped. Nobody can stop that space R&D and exploration being done in the inexorably linked military industrial lab university intelligence complex. But, we can choose HOW humans can go into space and we will choose that in 2003: with or without space-based weapons and continued wars. It is time to make that choice.

Humankind's future space age economic engine lies not in contracts based on identifying more enemies and creating more wars, but on changing that industry and mindset to a non-weapons space related industry and economy based on space research and development, exploration, and on space manufacturing, production, deployment and travel, and on space habitation. We are the responsible generation, all of us, and we must make the conscious choice weapons or battle stations in space, but all kinds of exciting, beneficial and world cooperative space ventures that will finally bring the world together and into a state of peace. We CAN DO this, and we MUST DO this. It is OUR responsibility to make sure that space doe remain to be a space-based weapons free zone.

With vision and intention, we can now feasibly and easily (!) transform/convert the space-based weapons R&D program and war industry and into a world cooperative civil, commercial and military space program based on a space economy with an earth society that recognizes itself as a society in space that provides solutions.

As the collective consciousness becomes more aware and shifts, as humans become aware that inner and outer space IS peace, the nature of economics will shift from war to space, and, therefore, to peace. We will no longer experience wars as a primary economic driver. Space will become the economic stimulus.

Instead of talking about a war to a peace economy, which didn't and won't work as the game was always based on seizing that highest ground, which, in our lifetime, happens to be in space itself, we are talking about a war to a space economy, since the war industry IS moving into space. The bill and treaty will simply remove the mandate to weaponize space, something we don't need or want anyway, thus allowing the economy and all sacred life on earth to flourish. Time is of the essence.


There is no more time for debate or distractions. Debates on this subject have taken place since March '83 when President Reagan introduced the Strategic Defense Initiative. And had gone on for decades before it hit the dinner table circuit.

Now, we have a champion on the US Hill, we have a local Resolution, a US national bill, and the companion Space Preservation Treaty ready to be signed, sealed and delivered in a way that will be the key to real and lasting peace on earth. The ABN Treaty was only between two countries, the Outer Space Treaty and other treaties and resolutions are not all inclusive, it is the Space

Preservation Treaty that will prevent the weaponization of space.

Please make a Signature Copy of the Space Preservation Treaty for your Head of State and/or Foreign Minister to sign. Ask them to sign it immediately, and to send it immediately to the U.N. Secretary General as Treaty Depositary:

U.N. Secretary General Kofi Annan. United Nations, New York , New York 10017 .

All U.N. Member State leaders, Heads of State, Foreign Ministers or designated officials, may sign the Space Preservation Treaty, now, and deposit it immediately with Secretary General Kofi Annan as Treaty Depositary under Article 102 of the U.N. (Over 40,000 international agreements have been so signed and deposited with the U.N. Secretary General since the inception of the United Nations.)

The Space Preservation Treaty establishes a permanent ban on ALL space-based weapons, implements a ban on the use of weapons to destroy or damage objects in space that are in orbit, and terminates research and development (R&D), testing, manufacturing, production and deployment of all space-based weapons.

The Space Preservation Treaty establishes the vitally important international Outer Space Peacekeeping Agency to monitor outer space and to enforce (based on conflict resolution type techniques) the permanent ban of ALL space-based weapons as soon as the first twenty countries sign and ratify it. The Space Preservation Treaty allows continued R&D and exploration of civil, commercial and defense related activities that are not related to space-based weapons.

This Treaty is a win-win for everyone. This is the time to do this. We must do this.

The Space Preservation Treaty comes into force and establishes the Outer Space Peacekeeping Agency as soon as the first twenty U.N. Member States have signed the Treaty and deposited instruments of ratification with the U.N. Secretary General. This Agency will also be equipped to verify arms agreements, including the reduction and inevitable elimination of dangerous technologies on earth.

An emergency Treaty-signing Conference for the Space Preservation Treaty will facilitate the signing and ratification process. This will be similar to the Canada Treaty-signing Conference in December, 1997, where 122 countries signed the Convention Banning Land Mines, known as the "Ottawa Convention." All Member States and nation-state leaders can sign and ratify the Space Preservation Treaty now. Any Member State (s) can initiate this Treaty-signing Conference.

U.S. Congressman Dennis Kucinich says,

"It is my sincere hope that all nation-state leaders will immediately sign this Treaty, send it to the U.N. Secretary General, and ratify it as soon as possible. The Space Preservation Treaty will play an integral role in securing space for peaceful purposes. I support your efforts to secure an

international Treaty Conference to facilitate the signing and ratification of this Treaty. We can create more peaceful conditions in this world by reaching and claiming the universal high ground, that trackless space which is the inheritance of all of us. We have an opportunity to recreate the spirit of our times. We can take this technology for destruction, for war, and, through this proposal, create a technology for peace. We can create a world where war no longer becomes

inevitable. We first have to look to a practical measure, such a measure to stop the weaponization of space."

To initiate an international Treaty-signing Conference, and/or to introduce the Resolution to ban space-based weapons in your city, or for further information including video tapes of Congressman Kucinich, please contact ICIS.



Focusing on PEACE In Space:



The Space Millennium: Vienna Declaration on Space and Human Development*

The States participating in the Third United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (UNISPACE III), held in Vienna from 19 to 30 July 1999, I

Reaffirming the aims and principles of the Charter of the United Nations, the principles of international law and the relevant resolutions of the General Assembly,

Having in mind that humans have always gazed at the sky with wonder and that from such was born the curiosity that drove early astronomers to study the movements of celestial bodies, from which the foundations of modern space science and technology were laid,

Recognizing the importance of space science and space applications for the fundamental knowledge of the universe, education, health, environmental monitoring, management of natural resources, disaster management, meteorological forecasting and climate modelling, satellite navigation and communications, and the major contribution that space science and technology

make to the well-being of humanity and specifically to economic, social and cultural development,

Considering that space transcends national boundaries and interests, permitting the development of global solutions to address common challenges and providing a vantage point from which to view planet Earth,

Noting the positive developments in international relations since the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, held in Vienna from 9 to 21 August 1982,1

Reaffirming the common interest of all humanity in the progress of the exploration and use of outer space for peaceful purposes, and convinced of the need to prevent an arms race in outer space as an essential condition for the promotion of international cooperation in this regard,

Recognizing that outer space should be the province of all humankind, to be utilized for peaceful purposes and in the interests of maintaining international peace and security, in accordance with international law, including the Charter of the United Nations and as proclaimed in the Treaty on

Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, 2

Reaffirming General Assembly resolution 51/122 of 13 December 1996, entitled "Declaration on International Cooperation in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space for the Benefit and in the Interest of All States, Taking into Particular Account the Needs of Developing Countries",

Recognizing that the orderly conduct of space activities is beneficial to all countries, whether or not they have already become active in space research or have started to utilize space applications, and that active support for space activities is expressed in the observance by States and by international organizations of the provisions of the outer space treaties,

Noting with satisfaction that the United Nations conferences on the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space were held in Vienna in 1968 and in 1982, leading to many new initiatives, including the creation of the United Nations Programme on Space Applications and the establishment of regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations,

which are contributing to a better understanding of space technology and to capacity-building in the utilization of space technology at the local level for social and economic development,

Noting the benefits and applications of space technologies in addressing the unprecedented challenges to sustainable development, and noting also the effectiveness of space instruments for dealing with the challenges posed by the pollution of the environment, depletion of natural resources, loss of biodiversity and the effects of natural and anthropogenic disasters,

Recognizing that significant changes have occurred in the structure and content of world space activity, as reflected in the increasing number of participants in space activities at all levels and the growing contribution of the private sector to the promotion and implementation of space activities,

Recognizing also that the use of space technology should be in accordance with the principles set out in Agenda 213 for the benefit of all nations and peoples and that its applications should be extended to developing countries,

Recognizing further the role played in recent years in the field of space by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, as well as the role of States in the formulation of policies and implementation of international cooperation in that field,

Realizing that the above-mentioned challenges can be met for the benefit of all humanity by considering the mutual interests of all parties, sharing space knowledge and resources, coordinating missions and projects between interested States and strengthening international cooperation in the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space,

Convinced that efforts should be undertaken to facilitate substantive joint projects between "space-faring" and "non-space-faring" countries, as well as among developing countries, which could result in the undertaking of projects that are beyond the means of individual countries,

Taking note with satisfaction of the valuable contributions of participants of the Technical Forum and the Space Generation Forum to the work of UNISPACE III,

1.    Declare the following as the nucleus of a strategy to address global challenges in the future:

(a) Protecting the Earths environment and managing its resources: action should be taken:

     (i)        To develop a comprehensive, worldwide, environmental monitoring strategy for long-term global observations by building on existing space and ground capabilities, through the coordination of the activities of various entities and organizations involved in such efforts;

     (ii)       To improve the management of the Earths natural resources by increasing and facilitating the research and operational use of remote sensing data, enhancing the coordination of remote sensing systems and increasing access to, and the affordability of, imagery;

    (iii)      To develop and implement the Integrated Global Observing Strategy so as to enable access to and the use of space-based and other Earth observation data;

     (iv)      To enhance weather and climate forecasting by expanding international cooperation in the field of meteorological satellite applications;

     (v)       To ensure, to the extent possible, that all space activities, in particular those which may have harmful effects on the local and global environment, are carried out in a manner that limits such effects and to take appropriate measures to achieve that objective;

(b)    Using space applications for human security, development and welfare:

action should be taken:

     (i)        To improve public health services by expanding and coordinating space-based services for telemedicine and for controlling infectious diseases;

     (ii)       To implement an integrated, global system, especially through international cooperation, to manage natural disaster mitigation, relief and prevention efforts, especially of an international nature, through Earth observation, communications and other space-based services, making maximum use of existing capabilities and filling gaps in worldwide satellite coverage;

     (iii)      To promote literacy and enhance rural education by improving and coordinating educational programmes and satellite-related infrastructure;

     (iv)      To improve knowledge-sharing by giving more importance to the promotion of universal access to space-based communication services and by devising efficient policies, infrastructure, standards and applications development projects;

     (v)       To improve the efficiency and security of transport, search and rescue, geodesy and other activities by promoting the enhancement of, universal access to and compatibility of space-based navigation and positioning systems;

     (vi)      To assist States, especially developing countries, in applying the results of space research with a view to promoting the sustainable development of all peoples;

(c)    Advancing scientific knowledge of space and protecting the space environment: action should be taken:

     (i)        To improve the scientific knowledge of near and outer space by promoting cooperative activities in such areas as astronomy, space biology and medicine, space physics, the study of near-Earth objects and planetary exploration;

     (ii)       To improve the protection of the near-Earth space and outer space environments through further research in and implementation of mitigation measures for space debris;

     (iii)      To improve the international coordination of activities related to near-Earth objects, harmonizing the worldwide efforts directed at identification, follow-up observation and orbit prediction, while at the same time giving consideration to developing a common strategy that would include future activities related to near-Earth objects;

     (iv)      To protect the near and outer space environments through further research on designs, safety measures and procedures associated with the use of nuclear power sources in outer space;

     (v)       To ensure that all users of space consider the possible consequences of their activities, whether ongoing or planned, before further irreversible actions are taken affecting future utilization of near-Earth space or outer space, especially in areas such as astronomy, Earth observation and remote sensing, as well as global positioning and navigation systems,

where unwanted emissions have become an issue of concern as they interfere with bands

in the electromagnetic spectrum already used for those applications;

(d)    Enhancing education and training opportunities and ensuring public awareness of the importance of space activities: action should be taken:

     (i)        To enhance capacity-building through the development of human and budgetary resources, the training and professional development of teachers, the exchange of teaching methods, materials and experience and the development of infrastructure and policy regulations;

     (ii)       To increase awareness among decision makers and the general public of the importance of peaceful space activities for improving the common economic and social welfare of humanity;

     (iii)      To establish and/or strengthen national mechanisms to coordinate the appropriate development of space activities and foster the participation of all the sectors concerned;

     (iv)      To improve the sharing of information on and use of spin-offs from space activities, in particular between developed and developing countries, by making use of appropriate communications technologies;

     (v)       To encourage all States to provide their children and youth, especially females, through appropriate educational programmes, with opportunities to learn more about space science and technology and their importance to human development and to participate fully in activities related

to space science and technology, as an investment in the future;

     (vi)      To create, within the framework of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, a consultative mechanism to facilitate the continued participation of young people from all over the world, especially young people from developing countries and young women, in cooperative space-related activities;

     (vii)     To consider the creation of awards to recognize outstanding contributions in space activity, in particular for youth;

(e)    Strengthening and repositioning of space activities in the United Nations system: action should be taken:

     (i.)        To reaffirm the role of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, its two subcommittees and its secretariat in leading global efforts for the exploration and peaceful use of outer space relating to significant global issues;

     (ii)       To assist in the improvement of the capacity-building process in developing countries and countries with economies in transition by emphasizing the development and transfer of knowledge and skills, by ensuring sustainable funding mechanisms for the regional centres for space science and technology education, affiliated to the United Nations, by enhancing support for the United Nations Programme on Space Applications through the provision of adequate resources, and by participating in the implementation of the new strategy of the Programme arising from UNISPACE III;

     (iii)      To encourage the increased use of space-related systems and services by the specialized agencies and programmes of the United Nations system and by the private sector around the world, where appropriate, in order to support United Nations efforts to promote the exploration and peaceful uses of outer space;

     (iv)      To promote the efforts of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space in the development of space law by inviting States to ratify or accede to, and inviting intergovernmental organizations to declare acceptance of, the outer space treaties4 developed by the Committee and by considering the further development of space law to meet the needs of the international

community, taking into particular account the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition;

     (v)       To further consider the agenda structure and working methods of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and its two subcommittees to better reflect issues of global concern, including international cooperation in space activities, taking into particular account the needs of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, as set out in the report

of the Committee on its fortieth session;5

     (vi)      To strengthen the coordination of mutually beneficial activities between the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space and other United Nations entities;

(f)    Promoting international cooperation: action should be taken to follow up the decision by the States participating in UNISPACE III:

     (i)        To take note of the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences for Africa and the Middle East, for Asia and the Pacific, for eastern Europe and for Latin America and the Caribbean that are relevant to efforts made at the global and regional levels, as set forth in sections A and B, respectively, of the annex to the present Declaration, and to call upon the international community, to the extent feasible, to consider those recommendations in appropriate forums;

     (ii)       To establish a special voluntary United Nations fund for the purpose of implementing the recommendations of UNISPACE III, in particular the activities of the regional centres for space science and technology education, taking into account the recommendations of the regional preparatory conferences. All States should be invited to support the fund financially or in

kind in an annual letter from the Secretary-General that will, inter alia, identify priority project proposals for enhancing and assisting technical cooperation activities, in particular for human resource development. The Secretariat will provide annually to the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space a report listing those States which have responded to the Secretary-General's invitation;

     (iii)      To adopt measures aimed at identifying new and innovative sources of financing at the international level, including in the private sector, in order to support the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III in developing countries;

     (iv)      To encourage all States and international organizations to strengthen their efforts in promoting the peaceful uses of outer space for the benefit and in the interest of all States, taking into particular account the interest of developing countries and countries with economies in transition, by facilitating programmes and activities between "space-faring" and "non-space-faring" countries, as well as among developing countries, and involving civil society, including industry;

2.    Recognize the tremendous achievements of space science and technology to date, look forward with confidence to achieving even greater progress in the future, and stress the vital importance of attaining the goals and executing the actions outlined above and described in detail in the report of UNISPACE III;

3.    Emphasize that the shared objective of sustainable development for all countries will require timely and effective action to achieve the stated goals and that such an endeavour will provide ample scope for space science and technology to play their proper role as major contributors to peoples' well-being;

4.    Recommend to the General Assembly that it review and evaluate, within existing resources, the implementation of the recommendations of UNISPACE III after a period of five years, and thereafter as appropriate, and that the reviews be based on preparatory work carried out by the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, open to the participation of representatives

of all Member States , and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system and observers;

5.    Recognize that the promotion of bilateral, regional and international cooperation in the field of outer space must be guided by General Assembly resolution 51/122; II

Recalling that 4 October 1957 was the date of the launch into outer space of the first human-made Earth satellite, Sputnik I, thus opening the way for space exploration,

Recalling also that 10 October 1967 was the date of the entry into force of the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies,6

Decide, in order to contribute to the achievement of the objectives of UNISPACE III, in particular that of increasing awareness among decision makers and civil society of the benefits of the peaceful uses of space science and technology for sustainable development, to invite the General Assembly to declare, according to its procedures, "World Space Week" between 4 and 10 October for the yearly celebration at the international level of the contribution that space science and technology can make to the betterment of the human condition.

*   Adopted by the Conference at its 10th plenary meeting, on 30 July 1999.

1.   See Report of the Second United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, Vienna, 9-21 August 1982 (A/CONF.101/10 and Corr.1 and 2).


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